27 Mac 2011

Concept of Human Soul

SPIRITUAL COHERENCE ACCORDING TO AL-GHAZALI:
THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN SOUL

By:
Mohammad Fazril Bin Mohd Saleh
International Islamic University Malaysia


Introduction
The discussion of the human soul, its existence, nature, ultimate objective and eternity, occupies a highly important position in Islamic philosophy and forms its main focus. For the most part Muslim philosophers agreed that the soul consists of non-rational and rational parts. The non-rational part they divided into the plant and animal souls, the rational part into the practical and the theoretical intellects. All believed that the non-rational part is linked essentially to the body, but some considered the rational part as separate from the body by nature and others that all the parts of the soul are by nature material.

However, as a student of Islamic Ethics, I try to understand the concept of human soul in the light of Islamic worldview with special attention to metaphysical discussion by Imam Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali. This paper will firstly discuss the biographical background of Imam al-Ghazali as he is the figures whom I have taken his works as my subject matter.  After that, as far as ethics is concerned, to me it is ethical to discuss the worldview of Islam (The Worldview of Islam: Pre-requisite to Understand Human Soul) as an entrance for further discussion on the topic of soul. Then, the discussion goes deeper in the sub-topic The Concept of the Human Soul. Under this subtopic, there are three main points:  (1) Soul: the Spiritual Subtlety; (2) Soul (Nafs) and its Levels; and (3) Soul and Its Faculties.

Biographical background
Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (450-1111), widely known as Hujjat al-Islam (the Proof of Islam), has always occupied a special position in the tradition of Islamic thought. Later Muslim medieval historians say that Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali was born in 1058 or 1059 in Tabaran-Tus which is located 15 miles north of modern Meshed, North East Iran, yet notes about his age in his letters and his autobiography indicate that he was born in 1055 or 1056.[1]


Al-Ghazali received his early education in his hometown of Tus together with his brother Ahmad (c.1060–1123 or 1126) who became a famous preacher and Sufi scholar. Al-Ghazali went on to study with the influential Ash’arite theologian, al-Juwaynî (1028–85) at the Madrasah Nizamiyyah in nearby Nishapur.[2] In 1091 Nizam al-Mulk appointed al-Ghazali to the prestigious Madrasah al-Nizamiyyah in Baghdad.


He was undoubtedly the most influential intellectual of his time, when in 1095 he suddenly gave up his posts in Baghdad and left the city. Under the influence of Sufi literature al-Ghazali had begun to change his lifestyle two years before his departure. He realized that the high ethical standards of a virtuous religious life are not compatible with being in the service of sultans, viziers, and caliphs. Benefiting from the riches of the military and political elite implies complicity in their corrupt and oppressive rule and will jeopardize one's prospect of redemption in the afterlife. When al-Ghazali left Baghdad in 1095 he went to Damascus and Jerusalem and vowed at the tomb of Abraham in Hebron never again to serve the political authorities or teach at state-sponsored schools. He continued to teach, however, at small schools (zawiyah) that were financed by private donations.


After performing the pilgrimage in 1096, al-Ghazali returned via Damascus and Baghdad to his hometown Tus, where he founded a small private school and a Sufi convent (khanqah). In 1106, at the beginning of the 6th century in the Muslim calendar, al-Ghazali broke his vow and returned to teaching at the state-sponsored Madrasah al-Nizamiyyah in Nishapur.). Al-Ghazâlî regarded himself as one of the renewers (muhyi) of religion (man yujaddidu laha dinaha), who, according to a hadith, will come every new century.[3] He continued to teach at his zawiya in Tus where he died in 1111.[4]

The Worldview of Islam: Pre-requisite to Understand Human Soul
Realizing the nature of existence and creatures, as well as nature of human being, are not only the physical part but also the unseen, al-Ghazali has understood the worldview of Islam before starting to express his idea in his works. Worldview of Islam is projected from within a certain metaphysical system.  Even though the term ‘worldview of Islam’ was not come into existence yet at the time of al-Ghazali, but actually it is the reality (haqiqah) itself.


 The worldview of Islam is the creed (‘aqidah) of Islam itself[5]. It projects the vision of the one reality and truth. It encompasses both dunya and akhirah in which, as Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas (al-Attas) put it:

“the dunya-aspect must be related in a profound and inseparable way to the akhirah-aspect and in which the akhlak aspect was ultimate and final significance. The dunya aspect is seen as preparation for the dunya-aspect. Everything in Islam is ultimately focused on the akhirah aspect without thereby implying any attitude of neglect or being unmindful of the dunya aspect”.[6]

 The worldview of Islam is a fixed unchanging, final and absolute vision because it is grounded in and derived from wahy.[7] This is not merely a theoretical claim, for Muslim historical experience has shown that the fundamental element of the worldview such as the conception of God, of the nature of man and of the psychology of the human soul, and the meaning of knowledge, of happiness, of virtue and vices, and of prophethood have no change throughout the long ages of Islamic epoch.[8]


It is not a derivation of cultural and philosophical elements but it is one whose source is wahy, confirmed by religion, affirmed by intellectual and intuitive principles.[9] This wahy is final and it is not only confirms the truth of preceding revelations in their original forms, but includes their substance, separating the truth from cultural creation and ethnic inventions.[10]


            The worldview of Islam consist of [11]: (1) belief in the oneness of Allah; (2) belief that Allah is the creator of this universe; (3) belief that Allah is the sustainer of the world; (4) belief in the unseen realities and the life to come; (5) recognition of the Holy Prophet Muhammad as the Messenger of Allah, and (6) belief in the angels of Allah and the authority that defines the truth as separate from falsehood (Qur`an: Yunus: 32).[12] For Muslims, Islam represents a way of life guided by proper knowledge and ethical principles outlined in The Holy Qur`an and exemplified in the practical life of The Holy Prophet[13]. As explain by al-Attas: “the man of Islam has with him The Qur`an which is itself unchanged, unchanging, and unchangeable; it is a Speech of God revealed in complete and final form.[14]


            Islam is absolutely perfect. Unlike other religions which evolved through gradual development throughout history, Islam begins with certainty and end with certainty. For instance, Christianity has experienced hundreds of years of development by borrowing from many different cultural and religious sources of ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Persia, the Jewish nation, and the European tribes, and by submitting to the demands of historical changes.[15] The term “Christian” itself was given by their enemy. Ways of worship and other religious rituals and duties cannot be claimed to have been derived from the sunnah of Jesus, for all of them were derived from a mixture of their own cultural tradition. The creed too are the product of creative efforts, additions and compromises and are further established and refined producing their present characteristic features.[16]     


On the other hand, Islam as the only truly revealed religion was already complete, fully developed and perfected during the last time of the last Prophet SAW as confirmed by Allah in surah al-Maidah (5): verse 3: “this day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion”. Al-Attas argues that the name of the religion of Islam and its adherents as Muslims as well as its form and substance were clearly given in the Holy Qur`an and not by their enemy nor by historical development. In addition, the language and forms of worship and other religious rituals and duty were known and established during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet SAW.[17]


Preliminary to Comprehend Human Soul: The Nature of Man
Islam does not presuppose any inherent wickedness of human nature. Any negative representation of man’s basic nature as a source of evil and wickedness is clearly rejected. According to Islam, the human being is born in the state of fitrah, the original inherent nature of the human being.[18] At birth, the baby is totally innocent and is not responsible for the sin of his parents or any of his ancestors. Environmental and other external influences keep on modifying his blueprint. The Holy Prophet said: “Every child is created in the state of fitrah, it is the parents, culture, and society that make him a Christian, a Jew, or a fire-worshipper.”


Islam is the first religion to declare man as the most superior of the creatures and the masterpiece of the Creator. According to Islam, man is potentially capable of rising higher than the angels. That is why Allah has commanded angels to bow down before Adam. But, at the same time, he is equally capable of sinking lower than the animals.[19] The Holy Qur’an says: "We have indeed created man in the best shape, then We reduced him (to be) the lowest of the low, except those who believe and do righteous deeds: for they shall have a reward unfailing." Surah Al-Tin (95): verse 4­6.


These verses indicate that Allah has given man the purest and best nature while man’s duty is to preserve the pattern on which God has made him. However, when he neglects his duty and goes in the wrong way, he will be reduced to the lowest possible position.[20] The Holy Qur’an asserts that inclination and attraction towards faith and virtue and repulsion from disobedience and corruption exists in man’s nature. “But God has endeared to you faith and has beautified it in your hearts and has made disbelief and lewdness and rebellion hateful to you.” Surah al-Hujurat (49): verse 7.


To sum up the point, man comes into the world with a pure and wholesome nature, whereas sin and corruption in human being are merely accidental and violation of his original nature. The role of prophets and the scriptures is just to help human nature to flow in its true channel and to guide human nature to its ultimate goal of eternal felicity. This Qur’anic theory of human nature also implies the fact that if man consciously decides to submit himself to the will of Allah, he experiences no conflict in his personality, mentions in Surah Yunus (10): verse 62: “Behold! Verily on the friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve”, while, on the other hand, if he misused his freedom of choice by denying God and not submitting to His will, would be in a state of inner conflict and his personality gets disintegrated.[21] 


Man has been given the freedom of choice to do good or evil. This freewill gives him independence of intention, choice and action in various situations of moral conflict. Man is the only creature in this universe that has been given choice and discretion which accompany him through his life span. Man has also been granted potentialities to acquire knowledge of how everything else in the universe functions as well as the knowledge required for his felicity. Allah says in Surah al-Baqarah (2): verse 33: “He said, “O Adam, Tell them their natures”, When he had told them, Allah said, “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth. And I know what you revealed and what you conceal?”


 This knowledge along with the faculty of reason and intellect, are man’s primary guide that distinguishes him from other animals and help him recognize the path of his ultimate felicity.[22] Man’s hopes are often related to various comforts and joys of physical and worldly kind while Islam does not deprive him of these. Islam, however, redirects him from false and transitory joys and values to real values and everlasting joys. The Holy Qur’an says: “This life of the world is just a pastime and a game. And, indeed, the home of the Hereafter is the real life, if they know.Surah al-Ankabut (29): verse 64.


While speaking about the nature of man, Qur’an uses words like nafs, ruh, qalb, aql. Spirit is transcendent and the center of man’s being. Whereas soul (nafs), in its downward or corporeal tendency, is attached to the body and in its upward or spiritual tendency, is attached to the spirit (al-ruh). In order to understand the Islamic concept of human psyche and nature, one must understand these terms and their relationship to each other. These basic terms are used at many places in al-Ghazali’s works and will be touched in the next sub-topic.


The Concept of the Human Soul

                          i.            Soul: The Spiritual Subtlety

The philosophers including al-Ghazali agreed that, while the soul is in the body, its non-rational part is to manage the body, its practical intellect is to manage worldly affairs, including those of the body, and its theoretical intellect is to know the eternal aspects of the universe.[23] They thought that the ultimate end or happiness of the soul depends on its ability to separate itself from the demands of the body and to focus on grasping the eternal aspects of the universe. All believed that the non-rational soul comes into being and unavoidably perishes.[24]            


                 Man is not only consists of body, but also soul. He is at once physical being and spirit like mentions in surah al-Hijr (15); verse 29: “when I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall you down in obeisance unto him”. Man has been given the ability to perceive knowledge of the universe pertaining to the essences of things sensible (mahsusat) and intelligible (ma`qulat).


                 However, Allah says that man also given limited knowledge of certain things such as the spirit, of his true and real self or soul: “They ask you concerning the spirit. Say: “The Spirit by command of my Lord: of knowledge it is only a little that is communicated to you. surah al-Isra` (17): verse 85. But, by means of this knowledge, man is able to arrive at the knowledge about God and his absolute Oneness.[25] Al-Ghazali has dedicated his entire life to search for this knowledge in order to arrive to satisfactory and happiness.


                 According to al-Ghazali, there are four inter-related terms used in the Quran and Hadith of the Prophet, which are used in relation to the soul; heart (qalb), soul or self (nafs), spirit (ruh), and intellect (‘aql).[26] Each of them conveys two meanings which are physical and spiritual meanings. Al-Attas has beautifully elaborated this notion:

“the terms heart (qalb), soul or self (nafs), spirit (ruh), and intellect (‘aql) used in relation to the soul each conveys two meanings; the one reffering to the material or physical aspect of man, or to the body; and the other to the non-material, imaginal and intelligential or spiritual aspect, or to the soul of man. In general and from the ethical point of view, the first meaning denotes the aspect from which originates the blameworthy qualities in man, and they are the animal powers which in spite of their being beneficial to man in some respects, are in conflict with the intellectuals powers. The attachment of blameworthiness to the animal powers inherent in the physical aspect of man should not be confused with the idea of denigration of the human body, which is indeed against the teachings of Islam. The human being is created “in the best of moulds”, but without true faith and good works he is worse than the lowly beasts. It is against these non-beneficial aspects of the animal powers that the Holy Prophet urged us when he alluded to the greater struggle (Jihad) of man, for they are the enemy within. The second meaning refers to the reality of man and to his essence. To this meaning refers the well known Prophetic tradition: “whosoever knows his self knows his Lord.”[27]

                 Those four terms used with reference to the meaning in relation to the soul of the man, they are all indicating the indivisible, identical entity, a spiritual substance which is the reality of man.[28] These four terms actually are not differ one another rather they are the same and al-Ghazali called it as al-Latifah al-Ruhaniyah (spiritual subtlety).[29] Al-Latifah al-Ruhaniyah or spiritual subtlety is a thing which is created, that means it is a kind of creature but it is immortal, not measured in terms of extent in space and time, or of quantity. It is conscious of itself and is the locus of the intelligible, and according to al-Attas: “… and the way to know it is only through intellect and by means of observing the activities that originate in it”.[30]


                 Al-Ghazali then explained the significant of various names given to refer to Al-Latifah al-Ruhaniyah or spiritual subtlety because of its accidental modes or states (ahwal). Al-Attas then elaborated and paraphrased al-Ghazali’s explanation:

 “Thus when it is involved in intellection and apprehension it is called ‘intellect’; when it governs the body it is called ‘soul’; when it is engaged in receiving intuitive illumination it is called ‘heart’; and when it reverts to its own world of abstract entities it is called ‘spirit’. Indeed, it is in reality always engaged in manifesting itself in all its states.”[31]

            At the very beginning, man has already know the Reality of God and His Oneness as mentions in the Holy Qur`an, surah al-A’raf (7), verse 172:

“When your Lord drew forth from the children of Adam – from their loins – their descendants, and made them testify concerning themselves, (saying) “Am I not your Lord?”, they said “Indeed, we do testify
                
            The aforesaid verse refers to the agreement (al-mithaq/ al-‘ahd) between man and God in the worlds of dominion (al-malakut). Man has recognized and acknowledged that God is his true Lord (al-Rabb) and object of worship (al-Ilah),[32] therefore man has made a covenant with God and it determine man’s purpose, attitude and action with respect to his self and his relation to God. Al-Attas elaborated it clearly: “This binding and determining of man to a covenant with God and to a precise nature in regard to his purpose, attitude and action, is the binding and determining of religion (al-din) which entails true submission.”[33]


And the purpose of human life in this world is to submit to God as states in Surah al-Dzariyat (51): verse 56: “I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve me.” and man’s obligation is to oblige (ta’ah) God which is in line with his fitrah, mentions in Surah al-Rum (30) verse 30, “So, set your face steadily and truly to the faith: Allah’s handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change in the work by Allah: that is the standard religion; but most among mankind understand not.”.

      ii.            Soul (Nafs) and its Levels
Nafs (pl. Anfus or Nufus) lexically means soul, the psyche, the ego, self, life, person, heart or mind. Tajul Uroos writes that this word is used normally to denote the total personality of a person. It also means knowledge and intellect.[34] It is used for a person as well. It is further used to express greatness, superiority, courage, resolution, and punishment.[35]


The term Nafs has different uses in the Holy Qur’an as well, and in most cases, according to Mohyuddin Hashimi, it means the human being in reality, his self and his person (see surah ali Imran (3): 61; surah Yusuf (12): verse 54). It also means the human soul (see surah al-An’am (6):93; surah Qaf (50): verse 16). The nafs is a basic element in the cosmology of existence. Al-Ghazali mentions the two dimensions of al-nafs: the upward dimension and the downward dimension. The upward dimension is the uppermost limit of psyche which connects it the spirit, whereas the downward dimension is represented by the sensory faculties which connect it to the body.[36]


According to the Sufi understanding, nafs is the source the negative power of anger and sexual appetite in a human being which blinds his intellect. Sufis take "nafs" as the comprehensive word for all the evil attributes of a person. That is why they emphasize on doing battle with it and to break and inactivate it as it is referred to in the Hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH): “Your worst enemy is your nafs which lies between your sides.”[37]


The nafs needs to be nourished and developed in the Divine guidance. The nafs starts its career in an undeveloped form but equipped with immense potentialities of corruption as well as the development and getting closer to the Most Perfect Self, Allah (SWT), whose attributes serve as an objective standard for the human self. According to Mohiyuddin Hashimi, although some scholars have classified the nafs up to seven stages, the Qur’an has described 3 main types of nafs which are: (1) Nafs ammarah bi al-su’, (the self urging evil); (2) Nafs al-lawwamah, (the blaming self); (3) Nafs al-mutma’innah, (the Self at Peace).

1. Nafs ammarah bi al-su’, (the self urging evil)
This nafs surrenders itself to lusts and allows itself to be seduced by the devil. This is the raw self of an untrained person. Al-Nafs al-Ammarah has Shaytan as its ally who falsely promises him great rewards and gains and always invites him and attracts the soul to do evil. He presents falsehood to him in a form that he accepts and admires it. By its very nature, Al-Nafs al-Ammarah directs its owner towards every wrong action. Allah says: “Surely the human self urges evil.” Surah Yusuf (12): verse 53.


Al-Nafs al-Ammarah paralyzes the cognitive process of human being. Describing this fatal effect of Al-Nafs al-Ammarah, the Holy Qur’an says: “They have hearts wherewith they do not understand; have eyes wherewith they do not see; have ears wherewith they do not hear. These are like cattle – no, but they are worse! These are the neglectful.” Surah al-A’raf (7): verse 179. Al-Ghazali has mentioned the following negative tendencies of this nafs naming them with ‘spiritual diseases’: (1) Nifaq (hypocrisy); (2) Pride and arrogance; (3) Hawa or desire; (4) Self-beholding; (5) Greediness; (6) Negligence; (7) Restlessness; and (8) Riya`. These are the most harmful tendencies of al-nafs and greatest barriers to the growth of man. When these dominate the self, man loses his insight and his total energies are diverted towards unnecessary activities. As a result, he starts believing deception as truth, fiction as reality and self-glorification as his highest goal in life. 

2. Nafs al-lawwamah, (the blaming self)
The second level of nafs is nafs al-lawwama, the blameworthy self which blames its owner for his own shortcomings. At this level, nafs is in a state of constant awareness, self-observation and self-criticism. It recognizes his shortcomings, his wrong actions, his disobedience and the neglect of his duties. It is referred to it in Surah Al­-Qiyamah when Allah says:"And I do call to witness the Nafs that blames" surah al-Qiyamah (75): verse 2.
Nafs al-lawwamah is the one which cannot rest in one state. It often changes and alters, remembers and forgets, submits and withdraws, loves and hates, rejoices and becomes sad, accepts and rejects, obeys and rebels. Actually nafs, at this stage, is in the mid of its journey towards its growth and perfection.[38]

3. Nafs al-mutma’innah, (the Self at Peace)
Nafs al-mutma’innah is the third and the highest stage of nafs. A person when advanced to this stage, he achieves full rest and satisfaction while his personality gets equipped with the qualities of quietness, mildness, tolerance, forgiveness, and understanding of all beings. This stage of nafs ultimately leads to resolution of one’s inner conflicts and attainment of harmony with God. His personality is now dyed with His universal colour while his behavior reflects the Absolute being and the Ultimate Reality.[39]


This is the soul to whom it is said at the time of death: “O soul at peace, return to your Lord, well pleased and well-pleasing. Enter with My servants, enter into My Garden.” Surah al-Fajr (89): verse 27-30. Al-Qatadah says about this stage of nafs: "It is the soul of the believer, made calm by what Allah has promised. Its owner is at rest and content with his knowledge of Allah’s Names and Attributes, and with what He has said about Himself and His Messenger (PBUH), and with what He has said about the Hereafter…. so much so that a believer can almost see them with his own eyes. So he submits to the will of Allah and surrenders to Him contentedly, never dissatisfied or complaining, and with his faith never wavering. He does not rejoice at his gains, nor do his sufferings make him despair."[40]

    iii.            Soul and Its Faculties
According to Muslim philosophers, the soul possesses faculties or powers (quwa) and these powers can be classified into three different souls respectively: (1) the vegetative (al-nabatiyyah), (2) the animal (al-hayawaniyah), and (3) the human/ rational (al-natiqah).[41] The vegetative soul has the ability of nutrition, growth and reproduction. These abilities also possess by animal and man. While the animal soul are also possesses by man. But the uniqueness of man that makes him different from other creature is the rational soul. Therefore, man is a ‘rational animal’ (al hayawan al-natiq). Natiq which signifies rationality refers to “an inner faculty which man possesses that formulates meaning (dhu nutq)”.[42] The real nature of ‘aql is that it is a spiritual substance by which the rational soul (al-nafs al-natiqah) recognizes and distinguishes truth from falsehood.[43]

Conclusion
            From my reading and searching, I could find that man has a dual nature; he is both body and soul. That means he is at once physical being and spirit. To understand the notion of soul according to Islamic perspective, it is appropriate to know first the fundamental of the truth and reality. That is why, the understanding of the worldview of Islam is very important before discussing the concept of human soul.


            As stated before, according to al-Ghazali, soul is a spiritual subtlety (al-Latifah al-Ruhaniyah) which is created but immortal. It is the true reflection of man as the soul is the one who have made an agreement with God in the world of Dominion. Human soul have several levels, which determine the levels of man itself in front of God and they are al-nafs al-amarah bi al-su`, al-nafs al-lawwamah, and the highest soul is al-nafs al-mutmainnah.


Meanwhile, souls, as been discussed by philosophers can be classified into three categories; the vegetative (al-nabatiyyah), the animal soul (al-Haiyawaniyah) and the rational soul (al-Natiqah). Those three types of soul are possesses by man and only man is equipped with the rational soul that make him different from other creatures.



Cited Bibliography

Ali,   Mumtaz.     Islamic Ethics, unpublished manuscript

Attas al-,  Syed Muhammad Naquib     Prolegomena to The Metaphysics of Islam: An Exposition of The Fundamental Elements of The Worldview of Islam, Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1995.

.      “Islamic Weltanschauung: A Brief Overiew”, Forum ISTAC al-Hikmah, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1999), yr. 5 issue no.1.

.      “The Worldview of Islam: An Outline”, Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1994.

.          The Nature of Man and The Psychology of The Human Soul, Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1990.

Ali,    Abdullah Yusuf.      The Holy Qur’an: Translation and Commentary, U.S.A: Amana Corporation Maryland, 1983.

Dom,      Adi Setia Mohd.     Worldview of Islam Academy: The Concept, Kuala Lumpur: HAKIM, 2010.

Ghazali Al-, Abu Hamid Muhammad,           Ihya` Ulum al-Din, Beirut: Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, 1978.

.                 Ma’arij al-Quds fi Madarij Ma’rifat al-Nafs, Beirut: Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, 1978.

Hashimi, Mohyuddin.     Islamic Concept of Human Nature, http://www.hssrd.org/journal/ fallsummer2003-2004/english/islamicconcept.

Haq,  Manzurul             Concept of Personality Development in the Light of Islamic Thoughts, Dakha: The Bangladesh Journal of Psychology, 1984.

Inati, Shams C.   Soul In Islamic Philosophy, http//:www.islamicphilosophy.com/ soulinislamicphilospohy.

Khan,   Israr Ahmad.      Qur`anic Studies: An Introduction, Kuala Lumpur: Zaman Islam Media, 2000.

Muhic,   Ferid.      “Dialogue of Civilizations Through The Corridors of Faith and Mind”, Knowledge, Language, Thought & The Civilization of Islam, Johor Bharu: UTM Press, 2010.

Research Lab, Metaphysics.  “Al-Ghazali”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, UK: Stanford University, 2007.

Tabrizi Al-,   Wali al-Din Muhammad Abdullah al-Khatib.      Mishkat al-Masabih. Translation by abdul Hameed Siddiqi, Lahore: Islamic Publication, 1976.

Ushama,   Thameem.      Issues in The Study of The Qur`an, Kuala Lumpur: Ilmiah Publisher, 2002.


[1] Metaphysics Research Lab, “Al-Ghazali”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (UK: Stanford University, 2007)
[2] Ibid.
[3] Narrated by Abu Daud dan al-Hakim from Abu Hurairah
[4] Metaphysics Research Lab, “Al-Ghazali”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (UK: Stanford University, 2007)
[5] Omar Jah, “Al-Balagh”, Knowledge, Language, Thought & The Civilization of Islam, edi. by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud and Muhd Zainy Uthman (Johor Bharu: UTM Press, 2010), pg. 83, hereinafter cited as “Al-Balagh”
[6] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, “Islamic Weltanschauung: A Brief Overiew”, Forum ISTAC al-Hikmah, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1999), yr. 5 issue no.1, pg. 3
[7] Adi Setia Mohd Dom, Worldview of Islam Academy: The Concept, (Kuala Lumpur: HAKIM, 2010), pg. 7
[8] Ibid.
[9] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena to The Metaphysics of Islam: An Exposition of The Fundamental Elements of The Worldview of Islam, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1995), pg. 4, hereinafter cited as Prolegomena
[10] Ibid. pg. 6
[11] Omar Jah, “Al-Balagh”, pg. 85
[12] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena, pg. 78
[13] Israr Ahmad Khan, Qur`anic Studies: An Introduction, (Kuala Lumpur: Zaman Islam Media, 2000), pg. Introduction
[14] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena, pg. 78
[15] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, The Educational Philosophy & Practice of Syed Muhd Naquib al-Attas, pg. 81
[16] Translated by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud from Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Risalah Untuk Kaum Muslimin, (Petaling Jaya: ABIM, 1978), para. 30, pg. 109 in his book The Educational Philosophy & Practice of Syed Muhd Naquib al-Attas (KL: ISTAC, 1998)
[17] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Risalah Untuk Kaum Muslimin,(Petaling Jaya: ABIM, 1978), para. 30, pg. 110-111, hereinafter cited as Risalah Untuk Kaum Muslimin
[18] Mohyuddin Hashimi, Islamic Concept of Human Nature,  http://www.hssrd.org/journal/fallsummer2003-2004/english/islamicconcept
[19] Ibid.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Ibid.
[22] Ibid.
[23] Shams C. Inati, Soul In Islamic Philosophy, http//:www.islamicphilosophy.com/soulinislamicphilospohy
[24] Ibid.
[25] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Nature of Man and The Psychology of The Human Soul, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1990), pg. 2
[26] Al-Ghazali, Ihya` Ulum al-Din, vol 3, pg. 3
[27] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Nature of Man and The Psychology of The Human Soul, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1990), pg. 5
[28] Ibid. pg. 7
[29] Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, Ma’arij al-Quds fi Madarij Ma’rifat al-Nafs, (Beirut: Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, 1978), pg. 15-18
[30] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Nature of Man and The Psychology of The Human Soul, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1990), pg. 7
[31] Ibid. pg. 8
[32] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Nature of Man and The Psychology of The Human Soul, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1990), pg. 2
[33] Ibid.
[34] Mohyuddin Hashimi, Islamic Concept of Human Nature,  http://www.hssrd.org/journal/fallsummer2003-2004/english/islamicconcept.htm
[35] Ibid.
[36] Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, Ma’arij al-Quds fi Madarij Ma’rifat al-Nafs, (Beirut: Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, 1978), pg. 15-18
[37] Ibid.
[38] Ibid.
[39] Manzurul Haq, Concept of Personality Development in the Light of Islamic Thoughts. (Dakha: The Bangladesh Journal of Psychology, 1984). vol. 7, pg. 118-128.
[40] Al-Tabari, Jami’ al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, vol. 13, pg. 1323
[41] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Nature of Man and The Psychology of The Human Soul, (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1990), pg. 8
[42] Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Concept of Education in Islam, , (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1999) pg. 14
[43] Ibid.

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